Tuesday, December 23, 2008


At the start of puberty, pituitary gland in the brain gives signals to the testicles to start releasing testosterone. Testosterone produces physical and emotional changes in the person, changing the boy into an adult male.

Under the influence of testosterone, the testicles start producing sperm – the male reproductive cell. Both the testicles are contained in a sac called the Scrotum- which helps in regulating temperature as sperm producing cells are very temperature sensitive. Sperms move from the testis into the Epididymus where they mature. Ejacualation is the process where the sperms are released from the body through the penis. Just before ejaculation the sperm move from the epididymus into the Vas deferens. Here they collect Semen - a whitish fluid that provides the sperm with nourishment. Semen is a combination of the fluid given by the Seminal vesicles, Prostate Gland and the Cowper's Gland.

Ejaculation can occur only when the penis is erect. When sexual feelings arise in the brain, it releases chemicals that increase blood flow into the Penis. The penis become hard, engorged and erect because of this rush of blood and this is called an erection. At the height of sexual pleasure the semen is released from the body through the Urethra- the same tube that is used for urination. There is a special mechanism that prevents urine from coming out during ejaculation. Once semen has been released, the blood flow returns to normal and the penis returns to its original state.

A man produces millions of sperm everyday. There are approximately 100 million sperms in 1ml of semen. Typically 2-5 ml of semen is released with each ejaculation.

During puberty a boy may experience erection and ejaculation during sleep. This is called a wet dream or night fall and is very normal.

Changes during Puberty / Adolescence

We have a biological clock built in our brains that ‘switches’ on at around 8 -9 yrs to start the process of changing a child into an adult. The process takes anywhere up to 10 -15 yrs, physical maturity generally preceding mental and emotional maturity.
The process of physical maturation is called puberty while adolescence includes the psychological and emotional changes as well.
Physical changes during puberty
Girls mature about 2 years earlier than boys. Here is a short summary of the physical changes which occur.
Changes that occur in Girls
  • Height Increases rapidly. Starts at around 9 years and peaks at around 12-13 years. About 6cms are added on after the periods start.
  • Structure Pelvis widens for childbirth. Store more fat in the body.
  • Voice deepens and becomes less high pitched
  • Thyroid gland slight, temporary increase
  • Development of pubic hair starts at 10 years Can begin as early as 8 years.
  • Underarm hair develops last, sometimes after menstruation begins.
  • Blushing at slightest provocation during puberty.
  • Pimples start 1-2 years after onset of puberty and remain till late adolescence, subside on their own
  • Breast Development starts around 9- 10 years, develops by 14- 16 years.
    Breast and areola are enlarged, nipple projects outwards.
  • Development of reproductive organs Lips of vulva thicken and enlarge. Mucus like vaginal discharge starts about 2 years before menses starts- often leaves yellowish stains on underwear.Menstruation usually start about 2 years after pubic hair starts appearing. Normally around 11-12 years, but range is 9-15 years.

Similarly boys also undergo some physical changes. Here is the summary of changes in boys

Changes that occur in Boys

  • Height Increases rapidly. Starts around 10-12years and peaks at around 14-15 years.
  • Structure Shoulders broaden. Develop more muscle in the body.
  • Voice first cracks, then deepens
  • Thyroid gland Slight, temporary increase
  • Development of pubic hair Starts around 10 years.
  • Underarm hair Last to develop.
  • Blushing at slightest provocation during puberty.
  • Pimples start 1-2 years after onset of puberty and remain till late adolescence, subside on their own
  • Breast Development Breast develops slightly during puberty. May be sensitive to touch
  • Development of reproductive organs Penis and testes start enlarging at around 10 years and continues till 15 years. Erection of the penis during a bath or on getting up from sleep is common from younger age, but ejaculation develops by 12-14 years.

As the body is changing there are also some Emotional & Psychological changes that both boys and girls go through. here is the list...

  • Forming one’s identity
  • Setting goals
  • Forming one’s values
  • Looking for independence
  • Desire to explore, take risks
  • Need for acceptance- especially by the peer group.
  • Wanting to fit in with peer group
  • Mood swings
  • Self –conscious
  • Curiosity about body and how it works
  • Feelings of sexual attraction

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Are you a Victim of Child Sexual Abuse?

Are you a victim of child sexual abuse? Do you think it all happened because of you? STOP! Don't think that way. Do you feel guilty if you fall sick ? Do you feel guilty, if you were waiting in your car on the traffic signal and someone comes and hits your vehicle from behind? NO ! you don't. Similarly, an abuse is never your fault. Sometimes you are too scared to resist. Sometimes you are too young to understand that you are being abused. You can't even differentiate between what is right and what is wrong. You think that may be its a bad dream that you are seeing. Its only much later you come to realize what happened with you. But, then, its very similar to someone hitting your car on traffic signal, you falling sick of a virus.. it is never your fault. Perpetrators of these crimes are like Virus of our society, they infect people around them and make them sick. What YOU need to understand is that it is this virus who is at fault and not YOU. Like we take medicine to fight a virus attack, we need to get ourselves informed, resist their act - this is the only medicine the society has against these virus.
Believe in yourself. You are unique, you are good and that no one can deny. Once you start believing in yourself, things will improve. Things will change for better. And probably you would save a fellow human being from infected by this virus.
So, don't be shy, don't be afraid. It is not YOUR fault.

Wednesday, November 19, 2008

On Track - a workbook series on Life Skills and Personal Safety is released on 19th Nov 2008 in Bangalore

Dr Sangeeta Saksena and Dr Shoiba Saldanha, founder members of Enfold, have co authored this workbook series along with Dr Shekhar Seshadri, a well known child psychiatrist at NIMHANS. This workbook is for use by school children of std 3 through 9 and aims at improving a child's mental emotional and physical well being. It aims at prevention of child sexual abuse by building children's self esteem , communication skills and thus empowering them to resist and report abuse. The workbooks come with teacher's and parent's manuals and are published and marketed by Macmillan India. They are available at Macmillan showroom in Shrungar Complex on MG Road, Bangalore and at all Macmillan showrooms across India.

Friday, September 26, 2008

Are the workshops effective?

Bangalore CAN Prevent initiative by SAP Global Delivert and Enfold Trust has been working to prevent child sexual abuse since Feb 2008. We aim to empower children to resist and report abuse - especially sexual abuse. This involves 4-5 interactive sessions with students - beginning with students as young as 5-6 yrs. This is done without making the child fearful of all adults or intoerant of any form of touch. So far we have reached over 7000 students.
Is the program effective? I would say yes - because at the end of the sessions many students come forward and report that they are experiencing abuse and what they should do about it. With a little support from us, the children have been able to report the abuse, ensuring their safety.
I invite you to come and attend a workshop in progress. If you feel interested, and are motivated to prevent child abuse, let us know.

Little Angels.... A Workshop is progress

The People with a mission....

Enfold is a fruit of the efforts of  Dr Sangeeta, Dr Shaibya and Ms Meena. To know more about them please visit the enfold website . The link is :

Join Us.. Be a Volunteer

Enfold offers various Training programs for you to become a part of this movement. One such course is "Certificate Course In Life Skills, Sexuality, Personal Safety " .  The objective of the course is to :
  • To provide you with in-depth knowledge in life skills, sexuality and personal safety
  • To train you in conducting sessions for children and adults in life skills, sexuality and personal safety
To know more about the course please visit the website of Enfold Proactive Health Trust. 

Bangalore CAN prevent Initiative

SAP Global Delivery and Enfold has joined hands in speading awareness and empowering children against the menace of Child Sexual Abuse. The partnership started in the month of Feb 2008 has grown strength to strength. Till date the program has reached across children of age group 5-21 years, across various prestegious organisations/Schools/Colleges in Bangalore. Enfold volunteers conduct informative sessions, where the content is tailored to the age group being addressed.


Enfold Proactive Health Trust is a registered trust in Bangalore, India since December 2002. In the U.S.A, Enfold Health is a registered non-profit organization. 

Enfold was founded in November 2001 by Dr.Sangeetha Saksena and Dr.Shaibya Saldanha. As Gynecologists, they were dismayed at the occurence of preventable health problems in progressively young age groups. Seeing more sense in preventive and promotive health care, they started sessions on Human Sexuality and Life Skills.